Alberta Health Services. (n.d.). Trauma informed care.

Bucci, Monica, Marques, Sara Silvério, Oh, Debora, & Harris, Nadine Burke. (2016). Toxic Stress in Children and Adolescents. Advances in Pediatrics, 63(1), 403–428.

Chazan-Cohen, R & Summers S.J (2012). Understanding early childhood mental health: a practical guide for professionals. Paul H. Brookes Pub.

Correctional Service Canada retrieved from

  Denby, R. (2012). Parental Incarceration and Kinship Care: Caregiver Experiences, Child Well-Being, and Permanency Intentions. Social Work in Public Health, 27(1-2), 104–128.

  Gaston, S. (2016). The Long-term Effects of Parental Incarceration: Does Parental Incarceration in Childhood or Adolescence Predict Depressive Symptoms in Adulthood? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(8), 1056–1075.

Government of Canada; Indigenous Services Canada. (2020,). Reducing the number of Indigenous children in care. Retrieved  from

  Morgan-Mullane, M. (2018). Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Children of Incarcerated Parents. Clinical Social Work Journal, 46(3), 200–209.

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2005/2014). Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain: Working Paper No. 3. Updated Edition. Retrieved from

   Prison Policy Initiative retrieved (2020) The Whole Pie 2020. Retrieved from

  Skinner-Osei, L. (2018). Trauma-informed services for children with incarcerated parents. Journal of Family Social Work, 21(4-5), 421–437. Retrieved from

 Statistics Canada (2019). Adult and youth correctional statistics in Canada, 2017/2018. Retrieved from

 Vanier Institute ( 2017) Supporting the Health of Mothers and Their Babies in the Context of Incarceration

  Wildeman, G. (2018). Parental Incarceration and Child Health in the United States. Epidemiologic Reviews, 40(1), 146–156. Retrieved from

Sick Kids (2010) Attachment Part Two: Patterns of attachment retrieved from